Salamanders | Salamandridae

Salamandridae is a family of small to medium terrestrial or aquatic salamanders and newts in the amphibian class. Most species in the salamandridae family have brightly colored skin that excretes toxins through its numerous poision glands. Due to the number of poison glands, Salamandridae are considered to have rough textured skin. Salamandridae typically give birth to live young, that do not have a tadpole stage. Salamandridae are found in North America, Asia, Europe, and Northern Africa. Salamandriae have four well developed limbs, some develop dorsal and tail fins, and juveniles and adults have developed lungs.

What do salamanders eat?

Salamanders are carnivorous and their diet depends on their age, species, and habitat. Young salamanders eat microorganisms in pond water, tubiflex worms, and mosquito larvae. Once they are 2 months old, they eat the same diet as an adult salamander. Adult salamanders are not picky and usually eat maggots, mysis, springtails, buffalo worms, fruit-flies, and crickets.

How do salamanders reproduce?

Salamanders reproduce via the female salamander fertilizing the eggs by picking up spermatophore from ground or water where it was left by the male. The fertilized eggs are then placed in water or land depending on the species and produce larvae. A salamander is able to place up to 450 eggs in water.

Where can you find salamanders?

Salamanders can be found in the Americas, most frequently in North America, as well as the temperate zones of Northern Africa, Asia, and Europe. They typically live in damp areas around streams under stones, logs, and leaves in moist habitats.

Salamanders Guides
Browse through our curated Salamanders Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Salamanders. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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.31”-.55” | .8-1.4 cm
.28”-.47” | .7-1.2 cm
2.75”-4.72” | 7-12 cm
.05-.23 oz | 1.4-6.4 g
15-30 years
Alpine Newt
1.400
1.200
12.000
0.006
30.00
3200
3D
Alpine Newt
.51”-.83” | 1.3-2.1 cm
.47”-.79” | 1.2-2 cm
4.72”-7.87” | 12-20 cm
.21-.39 oz | 6-11 g
15-30 years
California Newt
2.100
2.000
20.000
0.011
30.00
2700
3D
California Newt
.79”-1.25” | 2-3.2 cm
.98”-1.57” | 2.5-4 cm
7.87”-13” | 20-33 cm
4-5.5 lb | 1.8-2.5 kg
10-30 years
Common Mudpuppy
3.200
4.000
33.000
0.003
30.00
2350
3D
Common Mudpuppy
.87”-1.42” | 2.2-3.6 cm
1.57”-2.75” | 4-7 cm
9.45”-15.75” | 24-40 cm
4-6 lb | 1.8-2.7 kg
12-30 years
Eastern Hellbender
3.600
7.000
40.000
0.003
30.00
2050
3D
Eastern Hellbender
.28”-.47” | .7-1.2 cm
.24”-.39” | .6-1 cm
2.36”-3.94” | 6-10 cm
.18-.39 oz | 5-11 g
12-15 years
Eastern Newt
1.200
1.000
10.000
0.011
15.00
6000
3D
Eastern Newt
.51”-.83” | 1.3-2.1 cm
.43”-.71” | 1.1-1.8 cm
4.33”-7.09” | 11-18 cm
.12-.18 oz | 3.5-5 g
6-20 years
Jefferson Salamander
2.100
1.800
18.000
0.005
20.00
2200
3D
Jefferson Salamander
.31”-.71” | .8-1.8 cm
.24”-.47” | .6-1.2 cm
2.36”-5.51” | 6-14 cm
.16-.46 oz | 4.5-13 g
10-15 years
Northern Dusky Salamander
1.800
1.200
14.000
0.013
15.00
650
3D
Northern Dusky Salamander
.35”-.39” | .9-1 cm
.35”-.39” | .9-1 cm
9.06”-9.84” | 23-25 cm
.6-5.3 oz | 17-150 g
60-100 years
Olm | Proteus
1.000
1.000
25.000
0.150
100.00
52100
3D
Olm | Proteus
.43”-.59” | 1.1-1.5 cm
.35”-.55” | .9-1.4 cm
4.72”-6.69” | 12-17 cm
.13-.15 oz | 3.6-4.2 g
6-20 years
Slimy Salamander
1.500
1.400
17.000
0.004
20.00
1250
3D
Slimy Salamander
.71”-1.18” | 1.8-3 cm
.59”-.98” | 1.5-2.5 cm
5.91”-9.84” | 15-25 cm
.4-.6 oz | 11-17 g
20-30 years
Spotted Salamander
3.000
2.500
25.000
0.017
30.00
12900
3D
Spotted Salamander
.71”-.91” | 1.8-2.3 cm
.79”-1.1” | 2-2.8 cm
5.91”-7.87” | 15-20 cm
2.1-4.6 oz | 60-130 g
14-25 years
Tiger Salamander
2.300
2.800
20.000
0.130
25.00
23700
3D
Tiger Salamander
Common Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus)
Comparison illustration of the size of a Common Mudpuppy to other salamanders

The mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, is an aquatic salamander that lives in the eastern part of North America in lakes, rivers, and ponds. As skin and lung respiration is not sufficient for gas exchange, mudpuppies rely on external gills as their primary means of gas exchange. They are nocturnal animals, and only emerge during the day if the water in which they inhabit is murky. Their diet is diverse, as they consume insects, mollusks, earthworms, and other annelids. Physically they are a rusty brown color with black, gray, and black-blue spots.

The Common Mudpuppy has an overall length between 7.87”-13” (20-33 cm), body width of .98”-1.57” (2.5-4 cm), body height of .79”-1.25” (2-3.2 cm), and weight between 4-5.5 lb (1.8-2.5 kg). The typical lifespan of the Common Mudpuppy is between 10-30 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Mudpuppy in various poses
The mudpuppy, Necturus maculosus, is an aquatic salamander that lives in the eastern part of North America in lakes, rivers, and ponds. As skin and lung respiration is not sufficient for gas exchange, mudpuppies rely on external gills as their primary means of gas exchange.

The Common Mudpuppy has an overall length between 7.87”-13” (20-33 cm), body width of .98”-1.57” (2.5-4 cm), body height of .79”-1.25” (2-3.2 cm), and weight between 4-5.5 lb (1.8-2.5 kg). The typical lifespan of the Common Mudpuppy is between 10-30 years.

Scaled collection of drawings of Common Mudpuppy in various poses
Common Mudpuppy (Necturus maculosus)
Height:
.79”-1.25” | 2-3.2 cm
Width:
.98”-1.57” | 2.5-4 cm
Length:
7.87”-13” | 20-33 cm
Depth:
Weight:
4-5.5 lb | 1.8-2.5 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Necturus maculosus
Lifespan
10-30 years

Drawings include:

Common Mudpuppy top view, side

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Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Spotted Salamander compared to other salamanders

The spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, is a common mole salamander found in the eastern United States and Canada. They live in a shelter of leaves or burrows in deciduous forests. It is the state amphibian of Ohio and South Carolina. Physically, they are stout, have wide snouts, and can vary in color- black, blueish-black, dark green, and dark brown. They have two uneven rows of yellow-orange spots that start from the top of the head and end at the tip of the tail. As larvae they mostly consume zooplankton, but as they grow, they consume isopods and amphipods.

The Spotted Salamander has an overall length between 5.91”-9.84” (15-25 cm), body width of .59”-.98” (1.5-2.5 cm), body height of .71”-1.18” (1.8-3 cm), and weight between .4-.6 oz (11-17 g). The typical lifespan of the Spotted Salamander is between 20-30 years.

Set of scaled top view drawings of the Spotted Salamander
The spotted salamander, Ambystoma maculatum, is a common mole salamander found in the eastern United States and Canada. They live in a shelter of leaves or burrows in deciduous forests. It is the state amphibian of Ohio and South Carolina. Physically, they are stout and have wide snouts.

The Spotted Salamander has an overall length between 5.91”-9.84” (15-25 cm), body width of .59”-.98” (1.5-2.5 cm), body height of .71”-1.18” (1.8-3 cm), and weight between .4-.6 oz (11-17 g). The typical lifespan of the Spotted Salamander is between 20-30 years.

Set of scaled top view drawings of the Spotted Salamander
Spotted Salamander (Ambystoma maculatum)
Height:
.71”-1.18” | 1.8-3 cm
Width:
.59”-.98” | 1.5-2.5 cm
Length:
5.91”-9.84” | 15-25 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.4-.6 oz | 11-17 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Ambystoma maculatum
Lifespan
20-30 years

Drawings include:

Spotted Salamander top view, side

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Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Eastern Hellbender compared to other salamanders

The eastern hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, is a species of the aquatic giant salamander native to the eastern and central United States. It is the only extant member of the genus Cryptobranchus, and other closely related salamanders in the same family are in the genus Andrias. Their means of respiration is unique, as it involves cutaneous gas exchange through capillaries found in its dorsoventral skin folds. It is classified as both predator and prey in its ecosystem. They are distinguishable from other native salamanders by their giant dorsoventrally flattened body with thick folds down the sides, a single open gill slit on each sides, and hind feet with five toes each.

The Eastern Hellbender has an overall length between 9.45”-15.75” (24-40 cm), body width of 1.57”-2.75” (4-7 cm), body height of .87”-1.42” (2.2-3.6 cm), and weight between 4-6 lb (1.8-2.7 kg). The typical lifespan of the Eastern Hellbender is between 12-30 years.

Set of scaled top view drawings of the Eastern Hellbender
The eastern hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis, is a species of the aquatic giant salamander native to the eastern and central United States. It is the only extant member of the genus Cryptobranchus, and other closely related salamanders in the same family are in the genus Andrias.

The Eastern Hellbender has an overall length between 9.45”-15.75” (24-40 cm), body width of 1.57”-2.75” (4-7 cm), body height of .87”-1.42” (2.2-3.6 cm), and weight between 4-6 lb (1.8-2.7 kg). The typical lifespan of the Eastern Hellbender is between 12-30 years.

Set of scaled top view drawings of the Eastern Hellbender
Eastern Hellbender (Cryptobranchus alleganiensis)
Height:
.87”-1.42” | 2.2-3.6 cm
Width:
1.57”-2.75” | 4-7 cm
Length:
9.45”-15.75” | 24-40 cm
Depth:
Weight:
4-6 lb | 1.8-2.7 kg
Area:
Scientific Name
Cryptobranchus alleganiensis
Lifespan
12-30 years

Drawings include:

Eastern Hellbender top view, side

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Olm | Proteus (Proteus anguinus)
Scale illustration of an average Olm | Proteus compared to other salamander species

A cave salamander, Proteus anguinus, exclusively lives in caves. They encompass several species, and they have developed special adaptations to their environments like rudimentary or absent eyes and lack of pigmentation. Many species have been commonly named ”cave salamander” without any modifier or adjective. For example, the olm is the cave salamander that is most noted for its adaptations to life of complete darkness. Its eyes are undeveloped, and to compensate, its other senses are acute. They lack pigmentation and have three toes on their forelimbs and only two twos on their hind feet.

The Olm | Proteus has an overall length between 9.06”-9.84” (23-25 cm), body width of .35”-.39” (.9-1 cm), body height of .35”-.39” (.9-1 cm), and weight between .6-5.3 oz (17-150 g). The typical lifespan of the Olm | Proteus is between 60-100 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the Olm | Proteus
A cave salamander, Proteus anguinus, exclusively lives in caves. They encompass several species, and they have developed special adaptations to their environments like rudimentary or absent eyes and lack of pigmentation. Many species have been commonly named ”cave salamander”.

The Olm | Proteus has an overall length between 9.06”-9.84” (23-25 cm), body width of .35”-.39” (.9-1 cm), body height of .35”-.39” (.9-1 cm), and weight between .6-5.3 oz (17-150 g). The typical lifespan of the Olm | Proteus is between 60-100 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the Olm | Proteus
Olm | Proteus (Proteus anguinus)
Height:
.35”-.39” | .9-1 cm
Width:
.35”-.39” | .9-1 cm
Length:
9.06”-9.84” | 23-25 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.6-5.3 oz | 17-150 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Proteus anguinus
Lifespan
60-100 years

Drawings include:

Olm | Proteus top view, side

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California Newt (Taricha torosa)
Scale illustration of an average California Newt compared to other salamander species

The California newt, Taricha torosa, is a newt that is native to California in the United States. Physically, they have warty, slate-gray skin on their backs with bright orange-yellow skin underneath. They also have eyes that protrude beyond the edge of the jaw line, and they are often indistinguishable to the rough-skinned newt. The California newt eats mostly invertebrates like earthworms, snails, slugs, woodlice, bloodworms, mosquito larvae, and crickets. In the Sierra Nevada the newt will also eat trout eggs, and in an aquarium habitat, earthworms provide all the necessary nutrients.

The California Newt has an overall length between 4.72”-7.87” (12-20 cm), body width of .47”-.79” (1.2-2 cm), body height of .51”-.83” (1.3-2.1 cm), and weight between .21-.39 oz (6-11 g). The typical lifespan of the California Newt is between 15-30 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the California Newt
The California newt, Taricha torosa, is a newt that is native to California in the United States. Physically, they have warty, slate-gray skin on their backs with bright orange-yellow skin underneath. They also have eyes that protrude beyond the edge of the jaw line.

The California Newt has an overall length between 4.72”-7.87” (12-20 cm), body width of .47”-.79” (1.2-2 cm), body height of .51”-.83” (1.3-2.1 cm), and weight between .21-.39 oz (6-11 g). The typical lifespan of the California Newt is between 15-30 years.

Series of top view illustrations of the California Newt
California Newt (Taricha torosa)
Height:
.51”-.83” | 1.3-2.1 cm
Width:
.47”-.79” | 1.2-2 cm
Length:
4.72”-7.87” | 12-20 cm
Depth:
Weight:
.21-.39 oz | 6-11 g
Area:
Scientific Name
Taricha torosa
Lifespan
15-30 years

Drawings include:

California Newt top view, side

Details & Downloads

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