Cattle, also commonly referred to as cows, are the most commonly domesticated ungulates. Evidence of the domestication of cattle dates back to 6,500 B.C., with cattle being one of the first species domesticated after sheep, goats, pigs, and dogs. Domestic cattle serve a trifold purpose being raised for their meat, milk, and work abilities. In some areas of the world, such as India, cattle are a religious figure and are not raised for slaughter. Cattle are not as commonly raised for their work abilities as they used to be, since they were replace by horses and then later machines; they are now primarily raised for meat or dairy.

What do cows eat?

Cows are herbivores and need of lots of nutrition to produce milk. A cow’s diet consists of grass silage, hay, alfalfa hay, grains, and corn. Typically, barley, oats, minerals, and vitamins are mixed into their food. Cows drink about 25 gallons of water a day.

How many cows can graze per acre?

Generally, a cow and calf pair need 1.5 to 2 acres for adequate grazing, but this depends on the location. Other factors that affect how many cows can graze per acre include the soil fertility, pasture quality, and rain.

Why do cows wear bells?

Cowbells are used by farmers locate and keep track of the cow herd by the sound of the bells. They also may scare away any potential predators. As technology has improved, the use and need of cowbells has become less popular.

Bovines Guides
Browse through our curated Bovines Guides for additional categorizations, tips, details, variations, styles, and histories of Bovines. Guides provide additional insights into the unique properties and shared relationships between elements.
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63.8”-84.3” | 162-214 cm
30.7”-40.6” | 78-103 cm
86”-114” | 218-290 cm
900-2000 lb | 410-910 kg
12-20 years (wild); 20-40 years (captivity)
American Bison
214.000
103.000
290.000
910.000
40.00
36600
3D
American Bison
93.7”-100.8” | 238-256 cm
46.9”-51.2” | 119-130 cm
113”-123” | 286-312 cm
3300-3500 lb | 1500-1590 kg
14-16 years
Ancient Bison
256.000
130.000
312.000
1590.000
16.00
1750
3D
Ancient Bison
Auroch
32800
61.4”-74” | 156-188 cm
24.8”-28.7” | 63-73 cm
105”-128” | 267-325 cm
1550-3300 lb | 700-1500 kg
25-30 years
Auroch
188.000
73.000
325.000
1500.000
30.00
32800
3D
Auroch
Banteng
44700
55.5”-74” | 141-188 cm
22.8”-30.7” | 58-78 cm
89”-118” | 226-299 cm
1300-1764 lb | 590-800 kg
16-20 years (wild); 20-27 years (captivity)
Banteng
188.000
78.000
299.000
800.000
27.00
44700
3D
Banteng
57.1”-61” | 145-155 cm
22.4”-24.4” | 57-62 cm
86”-94” | 218-238 cm
1150-2300 lb | 520-1045 kg (Total)
2-3 years (productive); 10-15 years (natural)
Black Angus Cattle
155.000
62.000
238.000
1045.000
15.00
1900
3D
Black Angus Cattle
Bongo
11250
53.9”-63.4” | 137-161 cm
18.1”-22” | 46-56 cm
66”-77” | 167-196 cm
330-904 lb | 150-410 kg
8-12 years (wild); 18-21 years (captivity)
Bongo
161.000
56.000
196.000
410.000
21.00
11250
3D
Bongo
60.2”-73.6” | 153-187 cm
32.7”-38.6” | 83-98 cm
96”-118” | 245-300 cm
1213-1918 lb | 550-870 kg
20-23 years (wild); 23-29 years (captivity)
Cape Buffalo
187.000
98.000
300.000
870.000
29.00
25600
3D
Cape Buffalo
56.3”-61.4” | 143-156 cm
22.8”-25.2” | 58-64 cm
91”-100” | 230-253 cm
1250-2500 lb | 565-1135 kg (Total)
4-6 years (productive); 15-40 years (natural)
Charolais Cattle
156.000
64.000
253.000
1135.000
40.00
17000
3D
Charolais Cattle
55.9”-71.7” | 142-182 cm
19.7”-25.2” | 50-64 cm
83”-106” | 212-269 cm
661-2072 lb | 300-940 kg
15-20 years (wild); up to 25 years (captivity)
Common Eland
182.000
64.000
269.000
940.000
25.00
5700
3D
Common Eland
48”-62.6” | 122-159 cm
26.8”-34.25” | 68-87 cm
84”-109” | 214-276 cm
496-1290 lb | 225-585 kg
20-25 years (wild); 25-28 years (captivity)
Domestic Yak
159.000
87.000
276.000
585.000
28.00
1500
3D
Domestic Yak
75.2”-81.5” | 191-207 cm
33.1”-35” | 84-89 cm
98”-107” | 250-271 cm
661-2028 lb | 300-920 kg
18-24 years (wild); 25-30 years (captivity)
European Bison
207.000
89.000
271.000
920.000
30.00
14500
3D
European Bison
28.7”-33.1” | 73-84 cm
7.5”-8.7” | 19-22 cm
30.7”-34.6” | 78-88 cm
37-49 lb | 17-22 kg
8-10 years (wild); up to 17 years (captivity)
Four-Horned Antelope
84.000
22.000
88.000
22.000
17.00
3670
3D
Four-Horned Antelope
Gaur
125800
76.8”-98.4” | 195-250 cm
32.7”-41.7” | 83-106 cm
120”-152” | 305-386 cm
1323-3307 lb | 600-1500 kg
20-26 years
Gaur
250.000
106.000
386.000
1500.000
26.00
125800
3D
Gaur
69.7”-83.1” | 177-211 cm
20.1”-24” | 51-61 cm
88”-106” | 224-269 cm
661-2645 lb | 300-1200 kg
15-20 years (wild); 20-25 years (captivity)
Giant Eland
211.000
61.000
269.000
1200.000
25.00
3200
3D
Giant Eland
48”-71.7” | 122-182 cm
12.6”-19.7” | 32-50 cm
54”-81” | 138-206 cm
265-595 lb | 120-270 kg
7-10 years (wild); 15-23 years (captivity)
Greater Kudu
182.000
50.000
206.000
270.000
23.00
11800
3D
Greater Kudu
60.2”-64.6” | 153-164 cm
25.2”-27.6” | 64-70 cm
93”-100” | 236-255 cm
1200-2300 lb | 545-1045 kg (Total)
1-2 years (productive); 12-20 years (natural)
Hereford Cattle
164.000
70.000
255.000
1045.000
20.00
25000
3D
Hereford Cattle
37.4”-48.8” | 95-124 cm
19.3”-25.2” | 49-64 cm
62”-81” | 157-206 cm
900-2000 lb | 410-910 kg (Total)
1-3 years (productive); 15-22 years (natural)
Highland Cattle
124.000
64.000
206.000
910.000
22.00
48000
3D
Highland Cattle
62.2”-67.3” | 158-171 cm
23.6”-25.6” | 60-65 cm
93”-98” | 235-250 cm
1200-1700 lb | 545-770 kg
4-6 years (productive); 15-20 years (natural)
Holstein Friesian Cattle
171.000
65.000
250.000
770.000
20.00
28000
3D
Holstein Friesian Cattle
47.6”-58.3” | 121-148 cm
12.6”-15.75” | 32-40 cm
49”-61” | 125-154 cm
198-342 lb | 90-155 kg
7-15 years (wild); 15-20 years (captivity)
Lesser Kudu
148.000
40.000
154.000
155.000
20.00
4750
3D
Lesser Kudu
Nilgai
119150
57.9”-72.4” | 147-184 cm
17.3”-22.4” | 44-57 cm
68”-85” | 172-217 cm
220-639 lb | 100-290 kg
12-13 years (wild); 20-22 years (captivity)
Nilgai
184.000
57.000
217.000
290.000
22.00
119150
3D
Nilgai
Nyala
31250
42.9”-57.5” | 109-146 cm
13”-17.7” | 33-45 cm
53”-70” | 134-178 cm
121-275 lb | 55-125 kg
11-16 years (wild); 15-19 years (captivity)
Nyala
146.000
45.000
178.000
125.000
19.00
31250
3D
Nyala
61”-64.6” | 155-164 cm
21.3”-22.4” | 54-57 cm
82”-87” | 208-220 cm
1100-1800 lb | 500-815 kg (Total)
1-2 years (productive); 10-15 years (natural)
Red Angus Cattle
164.000
57.000
220.000
815.000
15.00
1800
3D
Red Angus Cattle
Saola
45600
40.2”-45.7” | 102-116 cm
11”-13” | 28-33 cm
46”-52.75” | 117-134 cm
175-220 lb | 80-100 kg
8-11 years (wild); 12-15 years (captivity)
Saola
116.000
33.000
134.000
100.000
15.00
45600
3D
Saola
59”-70” | 150-178 cm
22”-25.6” | 56-65 cm
83”-98” | 212-250 cm
1545-2865 lb | 700-1300 kg (Total)
1-1.5 years (productive); 15-20 years (natural)
Simmental Cattle
178.000
65.000
250.000
1300.000
20.00
19000
3D
Simmental Cattle
32.7”-53.5” | 83-136 cm
9.4”-15” | 24-38 cm
42”-67” | 106-170 cm
88-275 lb | 40-125 kg
10-15 years (wild); 17-22 years (captivity)
Sitatunga
136.000
38.000
170.000
125.000
22.00
7160
3D
Sitatunga
Tamaraw
25100
41.3”-51.2” | 105-130 cm
20.1”-24.4” | 51-62 cm
72”-87” | 183-222 cm
400-660 lb | 180-300 kg
20-25 years (wild); 20-25 years (captivity)
Tamaraw
130.000
62.000
222.000
300.000
25.00
25100
3D
Tamaraw
52.8”-66.1” | 134-168 cm
19.3”-24.4” | 49-62 cm
82”-104” | 209-264 cm
600-2500 lb | 270-1135 kg (Total)
1-5 years (productive); 20-30 years (natural)
Texas Longhorn Cattle
168.000
62.000
264.000
1135.000
30.00
3100
3D
Texas Longhorn Cattle
48.4”-55.5” | 123-141 cm
22.4”-27.6” | 57-70 cm
80”-91” | 203-232 cm
1320-2645 lb | 600-1200 kg
20-25 years
Water Buffalo
141.000
70.000
232.000
1200.000
25.00
112700
3D
Water Buffalo
68.1”-87.4” | 173-222 cm
29.5”-38.6” | 75-98 cm
115”-149” | 292-378 cm
1102-2645 lb | 500-1200 kg
20-25 years (wild); 25-28 years (captivity)
Wild Yak
222.000
98.000
378.000
1200.000
28.00
10600
3D
Wild Yak
Zebu
91150
48.8”-62.2” | 124-158 cm
22.4”-28” | 57-71 cm
71”-89” | 180-226 cm
330-600 lb | 150-270 kg
18-21 years
Zebu
158.000
71.000
226.000
270.000
21.00
91150
3D
Zebu
Banteng (Bos javanicus)
Scale illustration of an average Banteng compared to a human

Located in Southeast Asia, Banteng (Bos javanicus) or commonly referred to as Tembadau, is a type of cattle. Wild Banteng, compared to a domesticated Banteng, is much heavier in size, but remain similar in other aspects, like male Bantengs are a darker color of brown or black, compared to the female Banteng which is normally a lighter brown to red. Both sexes of Banteng have white patches on their rear end and medium-sized horns. Bantengs are active both day and night, even though night activities are more common in human-frequented areas because of lingering predators. Bantengs are herbivores and commonly eat grass, leaves, flowers, and fruit.

Bantengs have a shoulder height between 51.2”-67” (130-170 cm), body length from 89”-118” (226-299 cm), standing height of roughly 55.5”-74” (141-188 cm), and a body width of 22.8”-30.7” (58-78 cm). The horns of a Banteng are between 24”-37” (61-94 cm). Weights of Banteng vary between males and females with males weighing between 1323-1764 lb (600-800 kg) and females from 1300-1477 lb (590-670 kg). Bantengs have a typical lifespan of 16-20 years in the wild and 20-27 years in captivity.

Collection of scaled drawings of Banteng in various standing poses
Located in Southeast Asia, Banteng (Bos javanicus) or commonly referred to as Tembadau, is a type of cattle. Wild Banteng, compared to a domesticated Banteng, is much heavier in size, but remain similar in other aspects, like male Bantengs are a darker color of brown or black compared to females.

Bantengs have a shoulder height between 51.2”-67” (130-170 cm), body length from 89”-118” (226-299 cm), standing height of roughly 55.5”-74” (141-188 cm), and a body width of 22.8”-30.7” (58-78 cm). The horns of a Banteng are between 24”-37” (61-94 cm). Weights of Banteng vary between males and females with males weighing between 1323-1764 lb (600-800 kg) and females from 1300-1477 lb (590-670 kg). Bantengs have a typical lifespan of 16-20 years in the wild and 20-27 years in captivity.

Collection of scaled drawings of Banteng in various standing poses
Banteng (Bos javanicus)
Height:
55.5”-74” | 141-188 cm
Width:
22.8”-30.7” | 58-78 cm
Length:
89”-118” | 226-299 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
51.2”-67” | 130-170 cm
Weight:
1300-1764 lb | 590-800 kg
Area:

Horn Length: 24”-37” | 61-94 cm
Weight (Male): 1323-1764 lb | 600-800 kg

Weight (Female): 1300-1477 lb | 590-670 kg

Scientific Name
Bos javanicus
Lifespan
16-20 years (wild); 20-27 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Banteng side elevation, front, back, lying down

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European Bison (Bison bonasus)
Scale illustration of an average European Bison compared to a human

Wisents (Bison bonasus) are a European breed of Bison. They are commonly referred to as European Wood Bison. The Wisent is the only existing species of Bison compared to the other three subspecies of bison who have gone extinct. The Wisent is the heaviest wild animal in Europe to survive. Wisents were theoretically heavier than their ancestors in old days, comparable to their American cousins. Their horns varied from medium-sized horns curving towards each other or smaller horns facing outwards. Because of hunters, Wisents are only seen in captivity of zoos.

European Bison have a shoulder height between 72”-78.7” (183-200 cm), body length from 98”-107” (250-271 cm), standing height of roughly 75.2”-81.5” (191-207 cm), and a body width of 33.1”-35” (84-89 cm). The horns of a European Bison are between 8”-26” (20.3-66 cm). Weights of European Bison vary between males and females with males weighing between 882-2028 lb (400-920 kg) and females from 661-1190 lb (300-540 kg). European Bison have a typical lifespan of 18-24 years in the wild and 25-30 years in captivity.

Collection of scaled drawings of European Bison in various standing poses
Wisents (Bison bonasus) are a European breed of Bison. They are commonly referred to as European Wood Bison. The Wisent is the only existing species of Bison compared to the other three subspecies of bison who have gone extinct. The Wisent is the heaviest wild animal in Europe to survive.

European Bison have a shoulder height between 72”-78.7” (183-200 cm), body length from 98”-107” (250-271 cm), standing height of roughly 75.2”-81.5” (191-207 cm), and a body width of 33.1”-35” (84-89 cm). The horns of a European Bison are between 8”-26” (20.3-66 cm). Weights of European Bison vary between males and females with males weighing between 882-2028 lb (400-920 kg) and females from 661-1190 lb (300-540 kg). European Bison have a typical lifespan of 18-24 years in the wild and 25-30 years in captivity.

Collection of scaled drawings of European Bison in various standing poses
European Bison (Bison bonasus)
Height:
75.2”-81.5” | 191-207 cm
Width:
33.1”-35” | 84-89 cm
Length:
98”-107” | 250-271 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
72”-78.7” | 183-200 cm
Weight:
661-2028 lb | 300-920 kg
Area:

Horn Length: 8”-26” | 20.3-66 cm
Weight (Male): 882-2028 lb | 400-920 kg

Weight (Female): 661-1190 lb | 300-540 kg

Scientific Name
Bison bonasus
Lifespan
18-24 years (wild); 25-30 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

European Bison side elevation, front, back, lying down

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Four-Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis)
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Four-Horned Antelope compared to an average person

The Four-Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) is native to India and Nepal and can be round roaming the open forests. The Four-Horned Antelope is a small Antelope species and is the smallest Asian bovid. Four-Horned Antelopes can be seen with a red to yellow-brown coat with specific white patches throughout their slim body, small legs, or short tail. A black hair stripe runs down the interior surface of each leg, with black patches on the muzzle and back of the ears. The Four-Horned Antelope get their name from the male Antelope because of their permanent four horns.

Four-Horned Antelopes have a shoulder height between 22”–25.2” (56-64 cm), body length from 30.7”-34.6” (78-88 cm), standing height of roughly 28.7”-33.1” (73-84 cm), and a body width of 7.5”-8.7” (19-22 cm). The horns of a Four-Horned Antelope are between 1”-4” (2.5-12.7 cm). Weights of Four-Horned Antelope vary between males and females with males weighing between 42-49 lb (19-22 kg) and females from 37-44 lb (17-20 kg). Four-Horned Antelopes have a typical lifespan of 8-10 years in the wild and up to 17 years in captivity.

Set of standing side and front elevation drawings of the Four-Horned Antelope
The Four-Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis) is native to India and Nepal and can be round roaming the open forests. The Four-Horned Antelope is a small Antelope species and is the smallest Asian bovid. Four-Horned Antelopes can be seen with a red to yellow-brown coat with white patches.

Four-Horned Antelopes have a shoulder height between 22”–25.2” (56-64 cm), body length from 30.7”-34.6” (78-88 cm), standing height of roughly 28.7”-33.1” (73-84 cm), and a body width of 7.5”-8.7” (19-22 cm). The horns of a Four-Horned Antelope are between 1”-4” (2.5-12.7 cm). Weights of Four-Horned Antelope vary between males and females with males weighing between 42-49 lb (19-22 kg) and females from 37-44 lb (17-20 kg). Four-Horned Antelopes have a typical lifespan of 8-10 years in the wild and up to 17 years in captivity.

Set of standing side and front elevation drawings of the Four-Horned Antelope
Four-Horned Antelope (Tetracerus quadricornis)
Height:
28.7”-33.1” | 73-84 cm
Width:
7.5”-8.7” | 19-22 cm
Length:
30.7”-34.6” | 78-88 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
22”–25.2” | 56-64 cm
Weight:
37-49 lb | 17-22 kg
Area:

Horn Length: 1”-4” | 2.5-12.7 cm

Weight (Male): 42-49 lb | 19-22 kg

Weight (Female): 37-44 lb | 17-20 kg

Scientific Name
Tetracerus quadricornis
Lifespan
8-10 years (wild); up to 17 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Four-Horned Antelope side elevation, front, back

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Hereford Cattle
Dimensioned comparison drawing of the Hereford Cattle compared to an average person

The Hereford is a cattle breed that originated from the countryside of Herefordshire in England and is known for its dark, red-colored body and its white face, crest, and underlay. Herefords can be located all around the world and depending on the region, they can have short-thick horns that curve downwards. Hornless Herefords are also called Polled Herefords. Herefords can endure extreme temperatures ranging from extreme heats to brutal freezing temperatures. Having such fast-growing bodies, their high mass means they are used for strictly beef consumption.

Hereford Cattle have a shoulder height between 55.1”-59.8” (140-152 cm), body length from 93”-100” (236-255 cm), standing height of roughly 60.2”-64.6” (153-164 cm), and a body width of 25.2”-27.6” (64-70 cm). Weights of Hereford Cattle vary between males and females with males weighing between 2200-2300 lb (1000-1045 kg) and females from 1200-1500 lb (545-680 kg). Hereford Cattle have a typical productive lifespan of 1-2 years and natural lifespan of 12-20 years.

Set of standing side and front elevation drawings of the Hereford Cattle
The Hereford is a cattle breed that originated from the countryside of Herefordshire in England and is known for its dark, red-colored body and its white face, crest, and underlay. Herefords can be located all around the world and depending on the region, they can have short-thick horns that curve.

Hereford Cattle have a shoulder height between 55.1”-59.8” (140-152 cm), body length from 93”-100” (236-255 cm), standing height of roughly 60.2”-64.6” (153-164 cm), and a body width of 25.2”-27.6” (64-70 cm). Weights of Hereford Cattle vary between males and females with males weighing between 2200-2300 lb (1000-1045 kg) and females from 1200-1500 lb (545-680 kg). Hereford Cattle have a typical productive lifespan of 1-2 years and natural lifespan of 12-20 years.

Set of standing side and front elevation drawings of the Hereford Cattle
Hereford Cattle
Height:
60.2”-64.6” | 153-164 cm
Width:
25.2”-27.6” | 64-70 cm
Length:
93”-100” | 236-255 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
55.1”-59.8” | 140-152 cm
Weight:
1200-2300 lb | 545-1045 kg (Total)
Area:

Weight (Male): 2200-2300 lb | 1000-1045 kg

Weight (Female): 1200-1500 lb | 545-680 kg

Scientific Name
Bos taurus primigenius
Lifespan
1-2 years (productive); 12-20 years (natural)

Drawings include:

Hereford Cattle side elevation, front, back, lying down

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Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis)
Scale illustration of an average Tamaraw compared to a human

The Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis) is a little, stocky buffalo. The Tamaraw is native to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines and is the only wild bovine in the Philippines. Adults are grayish-black in color, with a deeper line extending down the spine and white marks within the forelegs. Lighter marks are often present above the eyes, where eyebrows would be found. Tamaraws commonly have white patches on their cheeks or their chests. Both sexes have a pair of straight, backward-pointed horns that are exceptionally robust, commonly compared to the Carabao, the Tamaraw is the second largest native mammal within the country.

Tamaraws have a shoulder height between 37.4”-47.2” (95-120 cm), body length from 72”-87” (183-222 cm), standing height of roughly 41.3”-51.2” (105-130 cm), and a body width of 20.1”-24.4” (51-62 cm). The horns of a Tamaraw are between 14”-20” (35.6-50.8 cm). Weights of Tamaraw vary between males and females with males weighing between 500-660 lb (225-300 kg) and females from 400-525 lb (180-240 kg). Tamaraws have a typical lifespan of 20-25 years in the wild and 20-25 years in captivity.

Collection of scaled drawings of Tamaraw in various standing poses
The Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis) is a little, stocky buffalo. The Tamaraw is native to the island of Mindoro in the Philippines and is the only wild bovine in the Philippines. Adults are grayish-black in color, with a deeper line extending down the spine and white marks within the forelegs.

Tamaraws have a shoulder height between 37.4”-47.2” (95-120 cm), body length from 72”-87” (183-222 cm), standing height of roughly 41.3”-51.2” (105-130 cm), and a body width of 20.1”-24.4” (51-62 cm). The horns of a Tamaraw are between 14”-20” (35.6-50.8 cm). Weights of Tamaraw vary between males and females with males weighing between 500-660 lb (225-300 kg) and females from 400-525 lb (180-240 kg). Tamaraws have a typical lifespan of 20-25 years in the wild and 20-25 years in captivity.

Collection of scaled drawings of Tamaraw in various standing poses
Tamaraw (Bubalus mindorensis)
Height:
41.3”-51.2” | 105-130 cm
Width:
20.1”-24.4” | 51-62 cm
Length:
72”-87” | 183-222 cm
Depth:
Withers Height
37.4”-47.2” | 95-120 cm
Weight:
400-660 lb | 180-300 kg
Area:

Horn Length: 14”-20” | 35.6-50.8 cm

Weight (Male): 500-660 lb | 225-300 kg

Weight (Female): 400-525 lb | 180-240 kg

Scientific Name
Bubalus mindorensis
Lifespan
20-25 years (wild); 20-25 years (captivity)

Drawings include:

Tamaraw side elevation, front, lying down

Details & Downloads

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